**Galileo **had said “*The Universe cannot be read until we have learnt the language and become familiar with the characters in which it is written. It is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word*“.

Initially mathematics was simply used for trade, astronomy & constructions but nowadays mathematics on large basis used on other fields also. This includes Engineering, Medicine, Computer Science, Advance Astronomy, Statistics, etc. Human beings have made possible to go on different planets or to keep watch on other planets and space through satellites using mathematics and physics.

All these things would not have been possible if our ancestors had not made solid and pure base where all the fields of mathematics can stand on it. So it is very important and very interesting to know the **History of Mathematics**.

One major reason why mathematics can be used in so many fields is because of the numbers we use today.

So How did these numbers evolve ? Did our ancestors followed same symbols for numbers? Did our ancestors followed decimal place value system all over the world? If No then what all symbols were used? Why and How did they got replaced by the numbers which we use today?

**Mathematician Laplace**once said “The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated. Its simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions. the importance of this invention is more readily appreciated when one considers that it was beyond the two greatest men of Antiquity, Archimedes and Apollonius”.

I have tried to go through entire early History of Mathematics period by period and topic by topic.

** P.S:** *I am yet to add topics like Chinese Math and Europeans Math at the time of Newton and Leibniz. These will be added as soon as possible.*

dhwani says

pls tell me about dvajanka.

Is it sutra,subsutra or up sutra?