Greek Mathematics Although Greek civilization began from 2000 BC, it is believed that Greek Mathematics started around BC 700 which can be divided to periods, Classical Age from 700 – 300 BC and Hellenistic period from 300 BC- 400 AD and location extended from parts of Italy, Libya, Egypt, Greece and Turkey . Initially communication was done orally but later they started making clay tablets similar to Babylonians, writing on Paprus rolls and writing on wooden boards. Greek Numerals Earlier numeral system used was Acrophonic. Later around 4th century BC, it got replaced by Ionic number system where symbols were used instead of numbers. They also used with another system which were similar to Roman numerals and were similar in terms of complicacy as well. Because of their complex number system, like Romans, they were not so go good in arithmetic’s as compared to their expertise in Geometry (We will see more on numerals in Romans topic). Greeks were very good in Geometry. Many great mathematicians like Thales, Pythagoras, Euclid, Archimedes, etc were born in this period. [wptabs style="wpui-narrow" effect="slide" mode="horizontal"] [wptabtitle] Thales[/wptabtitle] [wptabcontent] Thales of Miletus (Today's Turkey) was born around 625/624 BC and died in 547/546 BC. Thales was the 1st Philosopher and mathematician of Greek civilization and he is believed for starting western philosophy. None of his work survived today but in those days they used to transfer the knowledge orally and was passed to the pupils which in turned passed to the next generation. It is believed Pythagoras was pupil of Thales. In his teenage life he visited Egypt, stayed and learnt there and then brought geometry to Greece. During his stay in Egypt he successfully was able to measure the height of pyramids using the geometrical properties of similar triangles and the length of shadows. He would wait till his height and his own shadow’s height match each other and then he would … [Read more...]

## Vedic Period

Vedic period is a period in which oldest scripts of world, in Sanskrit, called as Vedas were made which were based on Hinduism. Initially for many years these Vedic scripts, texts, hymes were transferred orally. The Vedic period starts around in 1700 BC and ends in the year 500 BC. People initially were present in north-west part of ancient India but slowly moved towards eastern India and also towards south (Deccan). People from the Vedic period cannot be termed as mathematicians by professions; they were priests/ pandits/ rishis who made use of mathematics for carrying out their religious rituals. Thus emphasis was not given on the proofs but used as properties/sutras. Vast knowledge of mathematics was also used in fields of astronomical and astrological topics like calculation of year duration, eclipses, zodiac signs etc. Vedic period can be divided in 2 periods (approx dates): [wptabs style="wpui-narrow" effect="slide" mode="horizontal"] [wptabtitle] Early Vedic Period[/wptabtitle] [wptabcontent] Early Vedic Period (1700 - 1000 BC): No mathematical texts are found from this period as in those days each information was transferred orally and was recited number of times so that they are well remembered. But still they used mathematics on large basis and used mathematical knowledge for carrying out their rituals. As stated in Rigveda, like Babylonians, they were able to independently predict the date of solar eclipse. Vedic people did name very large numbers (upto till 1062) and surprisingly they used all these big numbers just for their rituals.For one of the ritual, one of the Rishi counts till 1012. He after preparing bricks for a Vedic ritual, prays to the Lord of fire (Agni). Imā me Agna istakā dhenava Santvekā ća desa ća satam ća Sahasram ćāyutam ća niyutam ća Prayutam ćārbudam ća nyarbudam ća Samudrasća madhyam ćāntasća Parārdhasćaita me agna ishtakā Dhenavasantvamutrāmushmimlloke. Meaning: Oh Agni! Let these bricks be … [Read more...]